Infectious Diseases (including HIV & Flu)

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Disclosure

Please read footnotes, titles and explanations with each chart for source(s) and explanation of data.  It is important to note that some of the data presented below can not be taken as absolutely definitive since a minimum of 15 cases are required to calculate a stable age-adjusted rate. Considering the small populations in our rural counties, in several instances, the age-adjusted rates displayed below were calculated with fewer than 15 cases.  Also, where the information is left blank, counts/rates were suppressed, likely due to having fewer than 5 reported cases within the specified category.

Instructions

Some of the tables below have filters.  In such, use these filters to select the “category” for which you are interested, this will also change the trend chart.  Then, click the county/counties within the legend of the associated trend chart to view the county/counties for which you are interested.


Infectious Disease Rates per 100,000

Select the category by using the filter below. Select and De-select counties by clicking the legend options.

Sources:

  • Kentucky TB Data
  • Other Data requested directly from the Kentucky Department for Public Health

Introduction

Certain infectious diseases are reportable in order to see trends, assess risk factors and find solutions to decreasing their numbers. They are counted only when confirmed by laboratory testing. Transmission  can take several forms:
  • person to person via respiratory droplets (Cold, Flu, Measles),
  • the air (Tuberculosis),
  • hands (cold, Norovirus, Hepatitis A),
  • through blood (Hepatitis B and C and HIV),
  • sexually (HIV, Syphilis, HPV);
  • via contaminated objects,
  • from contaminated food or water (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Hepatitis A),
  • via insects (mosquitoes – Zika, West Nile Virus; ticks – Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever).

Analysis (February 2018)

Salmonellosis and Campylobacter infections were chosen to analyse. Using the data above, four year (2012-2015) rates were calculated (see table below) and it was noted that several counties had very high rates. For Campylobacter, almost all had higher rates than Kentucky. For Salmonella, four stood out: Adair, Casey, Clinton and Cumberland.

Discussion

Common Sources of Salmonella are pet reptiles and under-cooked poultry; but, other foods, such as melons, have also been implicated in outbreaks. Poultry is often contaminated with campylobacter, thus has to be well cooked to prevent infection. The LCDHD has undertaken an education campaign in Clinton and Cumberland counties, which includes information on cross-contamination, hand and kitchen hygiene, and cooking temperature instructions.

Many infections, Hepatitis A and B, HPV, Influenza, Pertussis, to name a few, can be prevented by immunization.